威博娛樂-外電灰色地帶:從曹錦輝事件看臺灣的假球文化-地下539算法

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威博娛樂

-外電灰色地帶:從曹錦輝事件看臺灣的假球文化-

地下539算法

。即時熱搜[

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楊家維

],這是一篇我在PTT棒球版上分享過的文章,

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現在在這裡再po一次,希望有更多人可以看到來自VICE Sports記者Jorge Arangure Jr.對於曹錦輝事件、中職現況、乃至於臺灣棒球環境的精彩見解。 我本身是VICE的忠實讀者,這是一個相當有趣的美國獨立媒體,關注的議題也都比較特殊(毒品、社會敏感議題、以及社會邊緣人之類的)。VICE Sports是他們的體育板塊,報導的切入點與一般的體育媒體有所不同,比較喜歡以多重角度以及文化背景來分析體育事件以及人物,是一個很有趣的體育媒體。這次竟然出現有關於中職的文章,讓我非常的有感觸,所以決定來翻譯一下。                                                            原文報導:Jorge Arangure Jr. / VICE Sports原文鏈接發表時間:1/2/2015  莫約十年前,臺灣投手曹錦輝是棒球界的全美前25新秀,他有著充滿力量的速球,並被廣泛認為擁有王牌投手的潛質。2000年是他在美國的第一個球季,當年年僅19歲的曹錦輝在145局內三振了187名打者,2003年他便代表科羅拉多落磯升上了大聯盟。 Nearly 10 years ago, Taiwanese pitcher Chin-hui Tsao was considered a top 25 baseball prospect. He had a powerful fastball and was deemed a future ace. In his first professional season in the United States in 2000, a 19-year-old Tsao struck out 187 batters in 145 innings. By 2003, Tsao was pitching for the Colorado Rockies. 但是好景不長,幾次嚴重的手肘傷勢斷送了他在美國的職業生涯。身為自由人的曹錦輝於2009回到了故鄉臺灣,並加入中華職棒(CPBL),從此再也沒有回到美國球界。 But several arm and shoulder injuries derailed his career, and in 2009 he returned to Taiwan to play in the Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL). He has not pitched in the U.S. since. 上週,一則報導指出洛杉磯道奇即將以一紙小聯盟合約簽下33歲的曹錦輝。如果不是因為該球員因2009年發生在臺灣的假球事件而被禁賽,這樣的新聞也不會引起這麼多人的關注。法庭並沒有向他提出告訴,但曹錦輝還是被中華職棒處以了終身禁賽的處分。 Last week, reports surfaced that the Los Angeles Dodgers were close to signing Tsao, now 33, to a minor league contract—a transaction that would hardly be notable if not for the fact that Tsao hasn't pitched professionally since that 2009 season in Taiwan, a result of having been named in a match-fixing scandal in his home country. Tsao was banned for life from the CPBL despite a Taiwanese court having acquitted him of any charges. 雖然他沒有被起訴,但是檢方約談的記錄卻顯示曹錦輝有“意圖”協助兩場假球:其中一場因為下雨延賽而沒有成功,另一場則因為其他答應要打假球的球員臨陣退出而也以失敗告終。即使這兩場比賽都沒有真正的假球產生,

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但是檢方的資料卻足以斷送曹錦輝在臺灣的棒球生涯。 Although he was not convicted, the acquittal papers alleged that Tsao had conspired to fix two games; one of which never occurred because of a rain-out and the second of which was allegedly not fixed after several players backed out. Still, the accusations were enough to kill Tsao's career in his home country. 作為第一個在大聯盟出賽的臺灣人,家喻戶曉的曹錦輝代表了中華職棒對抗假球的零容忍政策的一個象徵。  The first player from Taiwan to appear in the major leagues, Tsao—who received a still-record $2.2 million signing bonus in 1999—has become a symbol for the CPBL's new, tough stance on game-fixing. 為了臺灣棒球的道德觀感,中華職棒認為曹錦輝的禁賽有其必要性以及正當性。所以當澳洲聯賽的阿德萊德鯊魚隊於上個月試圖與曹錦輝簽約的時候,中華職棒向澳洲球隊施壓,並且最終成功的阻止了這次簽約。 The CPBL so believed that Tsao's ban was necessary to maintain the integrity of Taiwanese professional baseball that last month the league pressured the Australian Baseball League to nullify Tsao's contract agreement with the Adelaide Bite, where Tsao had hoped to showcase himself to major league teams. 為何中華職棒要對一個如此家喻戶曉的球員這麼的嚴苛呢?這道理十分簡單,在過去的二十年間,臺灣棒球因為層出不窮的假球事件已可謂是遍體鱗傷。 Why would the CPBL take such a hard stance against a prominent player? Quite simply because game-fixing has threatened baseball in Taiwan for nearly 20 years. 圖片來源:聯合報  近百年來,棒球一直是臺灣最受歡迎的運動。由日治時期的日本人引進的這項運動在臺灣紮根已久,即便後來的民國政府並沒有特別的扶植棒球,1960年代臺灣人還是通過在這項運動上的成功來稍微洗刷了被中國逼出聯合國的辛酸與屈辱。 Baseball has been Taiwan's most popular sport for more than a century. Japanese occupation of the island brought the sport to Taiwan in the late 19th century. Baseball thrived despite a lack of support from the Chinese nationalist party after World War II. By the late 1960s, baseball had become a source of pride for Taiwan, which, under pressure from China, had lost its United Nations seat. 當臺灣在國際社會面對各種尷尬的政治問題時,該國少棒隊的精彩表現讓全世界用不同的方式認識了臺灣。臺灣少棒於1969至1981年豪奪10次由美國舉辦的世界少棒大賽(Little League World Series)冠軍,並迫使該賽事的組織者於1975年開始禁止國際球隊參賽。 So while Taiwan faced political international ambiguity, the country's youth baseball teams helped establish an identity for the island. Taiwanese youth teams won 10 of 13 Little League World Series titles from 1969-81. Tournament organizers banned foreign teams from the 1975 Little League World Series in large part because of Taiwan's dominance. 1989年的十月,幾個臺灣公司決定成立自己的職業棒球聯賽,初始的四支球隊分別由以下企業成立:味全,統一,三商,以及兄弟。1990年的第一個賽季,新成立的中華職棒每場比賽可以吸引至少五千名觀眾進場,乘著球市大好,聯盟很快於1993年擴張為六支球隊,並且在1997年加入了第七隊。 On October 23, 1989, several businessmen agreed to found the CPBL with four teams backed by Taiwanese companies: Wei Chuan Corp., Uni-President Enterprises Corp., Mercuries & Associates, and Brother Hotel, Inc. Attendance was nearly 5,000 fans per game in that inaugural 1990 season. The league expanded to six teams in 1993, and then added a seventh team in 1997. 時報鷹是第一支因為假球而倒下的球隊,該隊是臺灣1997年第一場假球事件的主角。檢方的多方調查顯示時報鷹,三商虎,以及味全龍的好幾位球員因為地方角頭和暴力集團的威脅而不得不參與了好幾場假球。暴力集團甚至刺傷了當時不願意合作的味全龍總教練,同時也是臺灣棒球界的傳奇人物,徐生明。 But the China Times Eagles were soon disbanded after the first major game-fixing scandal in 1997. Several investigations revealed that players from the Eagles, the Mercuries Tigers, and the Wei Chuan Dragons had participated in game-fixing after having been physically threatended by gangsters. At one point, gangsters even stabbed Wei Chuan's manager, Hsu Sheng-ming, a Taiwanese baseball legend, after he refused to participate in game-fixing. 類似的事件於2005年以及2008再次爆發,連續的假球事件導致多支球隊被勒令解散,才剛呈雛形的中華職棒也不得不反復進入漫長的重建。如此的重傷害卻還是無法防止2009年的黑象事件:一個牽動了全國最受歡迎球員曹錦輝以及最受歡迎球隊兄弟象的又一次假球事件。很明顯的,臺灣棒球並沒有走出從前的腐敗,之前幾次的反假球行動都被證明不過是杯水車薪。 Similar scandals arose in 2005 and then again in 2008, which resulted in the disbanding of several other teams and a complete reorganization of the league. But not even that could prevent the 2009 scandal involving Tsao and his Brother Elephants team—the country's most popular player and most popular franchise. Taiwan was not past its corruption problems, and previously attempted solutions had proven to only be cosmetic. “聯盟以及有關當局並沒有去追溯問題的根源,也就是暴力集團以及黑白兩道對賭球的參與,反而是迅速切割那些被約談的球員,無論他們是不是真的有被定罪” 一位不具名的相關人士這樣告訴我。由於話題敏感,接受訪問的相關人士都不願具名。                                    "Instead of going after some of the source problems—organized crime and dirty politicians—they quickly cut loose all the players brought up on allegations, whether they are guilty or not," said one Taiwanese baseball insider who did not want to be identified because of the sensitive nature of the topic. No source who spoke to VICE Sports for this story wanted their name used. 中華職棒層出不窮的假球基本上可以被歸結為以下幾個原因:第一,亞洲的賭球市場非常的大,大到甚至可以牽動該區域所有的國家。 The CPBL is susceptible to match fixing for several reasons: first, the Asian gambling market is a billion dollar industry and it infects all countries in the region in some way. 第二,臺灣球員基本上是職業棒球世界薪水最低的一群人。“這個聯盟一點都不尊重他們的球員”,一位駐臺球探這麼說道,“這個聯盟非常的不專業。” Second, Taiwanese players are among the lowest paid in professional baseball. "The league just doesn't respect the player," said one scout based in Taiwan. "The league is just not professional." 中華職棒球員的基本薪資僅為美金兩千,而且還完全沒有保障,一個領有複數年合約的球員甚至可以隨時被球隊解約。這個聯盟沒有一個真正的自由球員系統,也沒有類似小聯盟的農場配置。一些球隊甚至讓球員在春訓的時候睡在高中宿舍,許多球員竟然還需要負責球團的日常庶務。  Players earn a base salary of just over $2,000 per month, which is not guaranteed. A player, despite having a multi-year contract, can be released at any time. There is also no true free agency and no real minor league system. Some teams make players stay at high school dorms during spring training, and many players are obligated to perform clubhouse attendant duties. 一些球員的成長背景以及加入球隊前的社經地位也是其中一個重大因素。由於1970年代棒球的盛行,許多臺灣的學校開始開設專為棒球隊服務的體育班。臺灣的小球員從小便開始只重視棒球且荒廢學業。 It is also worth considering the socio-economic backgrounds of some of the players. As a result of baseball's popularity in the 1970s, Taiwanese schools began to offer the sport almost as a vocational class. Young Taiwanese kids essentially began to focus on baseball rather than on academics. 小球員花費在訓練上的時間與精力大大超越了他們正常的上課時間,學校甚至會跨縣市招募有資質的小朋友來幫助球隊。 Players spent more time training than they did in the classroom, and schools recruited players from afar to improve their baseball teams to participate in ultra-competitive leagues. “訓練基本上成為了他們高中的全部”一位相關人士這樣告訴我,“雖然他們在學校,但是學業並不是他們教育的一部分。” "It becomes baseball training for most of the high schools," said the Taiwanese baseball insider. "Even though it's school, academics are not part of their education." 為了校隊的成績,這些學校開始從臺灣一些比較貧窮,

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並且教育資源比較匱乏的地區招募體能出眾的球員,而他們很多人都和曹錦輝一樣是原住民:一群在臺灣經常被邊緣化的族群。也正因為如此,中華職棒的球員很大部分都有原住民背景。 Schools began to recruit players from some of Taiwan's most impoverished neighborhoods. Aboriginal Taiwanese—like Tsao—who had grown up without much of an education, and had been some of the country's most marginalized citizens, were particular targets. As a result, a large chunk of the CPBL player pool became comprised of aboriginal Taiwanese. 以上這些因素結合在一起,造就了一個讓球員能夠接觸假球的環境:因為低薪,

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他們需要錢來貼補家用、他們許多人成長於對犯罪比較容忍的環境、而因為教育上的不足,球員們在面對此類情況的時候無法做出更好的判斷。 All of this helped create an environment where players became willing participants in game-fixing because they needed money to supplement their low salaries, or because they had grown up in an environment of economic survival where crime was not necessarily seen as an illicit activity, or they simply lacked the education to make better decisions. “當面對假球問題的時候,球員的社經地位,他們的價值觀,還有他們的性格養成是必須考慮的幾個點”一位相關人員這樣說。“如果他們在讀書的時候沒辦法得到正當的性格養成以及對金錢的價值觀,你又如何期待他們能夠在成為大人後以正確的方式去面對這樣的誘惑呢?” "With game-fixing problems, the players' social background and value system and what type of character development they received are things that need to be considered," the Taiwanese baseball insider said. "When they don't get character development as part of their education, and they begin to have values that are more about money, how do you overcome these pressures as adults to make the right judgments?" 臺灣假球事件的過程通常非常類似,一個球員的前隊友或是朋友會介紹球員給黑道認識,這經常會發生在一些社交場合,而社交的內容則是酒以及性招待。當被黑道接觸後,球員馬上就會被要求打假球,有時候這些黑道還會訴諸暴力,一些特別強大的黑道甚至可以直接打電話給球隊來確認假球的進度。 Game-fixing followed a similar path, according to sources. A former teammate or a friend would introduce players to gangsters. This usually happened during a social outing where players were treated to drinks and, often, sexual favors. Once in contact with the gangsters, these players were soon asked to fix games, sometimes forcefully. Some gangsters were powerful enough where they could directly call into the clubhouse to check on their investment. 聯盟也有嘗試過對抗這些犯罪行為,

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其內容不外乎讓球員於春訓時參與所謂的反賭課程,球員也必須簽署讓聯盟監控他們手機通訊內容的同意書。 The league has tried to combat this criminal element by forcing players to attend anti-gambling seminars during spring training. Players are also made to sign consent forms that allow league officials to monitor their cell phones. 但這些可能都還是不足以防止假球的再一次發生。 Yet that might still not be enough. “一些和我聊過這些事情的人認為類似事件還是持續不斷的在發生中,只是以和以往不同的形式和方法”一位美國大聯盟球探這樣說道。“可能不是像黑象這樣等級的,但是黑道的滲透在臺灣實在是太無所不在了,你要如何將它完全拔出出棒球?” "People I've talked to still think it's probably going on in some form," said one American League team scout. "There hasn't been a high profile bust like when Tsao was indicted, but the gangster/mafia culture is so prominent in the country it's tough to root it out of baseball." 這也就是為什麼中華職棒認為曹錦輝的例子是如此的重要。 And that's why the CPBL believes Tsao's case has become so important. 2010年六月,就在他被臺灣禁賽不久後,曹錦輝在美國讓幾位大聯盟球探做了測試。結果非常不錯,而曹錦輝的表現也引來了許多關注。 In June 2010, shortly after he had been banned in Taiwan, Tsao worked out for several major league team scouts in the U.S. He did well enough in those tryouts to attract some interest. 但大聯盟在臺灣檢方的完整調查報告出爐前並不敢通過任何與曹錦輝相關的合約請求。為了調查曹錦輝事件,大聯盟動用了他們自己的調查小組(調查禁藥使用的同一批人員)。在一段非常長的調查後,許多資訊來源均確認曹錦輝已經被允許與大聯盟球隊簽署合約。 But MLB was hesitant to approve any deal until a full investigation had been conducted. In order to fully vet Tsao, MLB deployed its investigative unit—the same group that had been put together to untangle PED use, and had also helped curb illegal activities in the signing of Latin American amateur players. After a lengthy investigation, Tsao, according to several sources, was cleared to sign with a major league team. 對曹錦輝來說,這便是證明他清白的最大籌碼,但曹錦輝至今卻還沒有被任何球隊簽下。一直到2014年的11月,

放球版

當曹錦輝在15名大聯盟球探面前投出92-93miles的球速時,美國對他的興趣才又開始油然再起。但這樣的表現也只夠為他帶來小聯盟合約的興趣。 This has been Tsao's biggest claim to innocence. But Tsao remained unsigned until now. It was only after Tsao's workout for MLB team scouts in November 2014 that interest in him arose again. During that tryout in front of about 15 teams, Tsao threw 92-93 mph and appeared in good shape. Yet that was only good enough to get him a minor league deal. “再怎麼說,他也是經歷了好幾次大傷,身上還有許多包袱。這樣的風險實在是太大了”一位對曹錦輝投球表現表示讚許的國聯球探如此說道。“如果我們選擇和他簽約的話,球團內部會有一些意見的” "At the end of the day, he's had so many injuries and some of the baggage he brings was just not worth the risk," said one National League team scout, who said he had been impressed with Tsao's workout. "If we would have signed Tsao, it would have created some commotion." 他接下來又說道:“我認為他是清白的,但是這些事情總是有許多灰色地帶的,不是嗎?”  He added: "As far as I know, I think he's innocent. But there's a lot of gray area out there." 譯者:您誠摯的dermer丹,六合彩